In-Vitro Fluorescence Microscopy Studies Show Retention of Spike-Protein (SARS-CoV-2) on Cell Membrane in the Presence of Amodiaquin Dihydrochloride Dihydrate DrugTeam Lead: Partha Mondal
Note: This is a pre-print study which has not been peer-reviewed yet.
The ability of S-glycoprotein (S-protein) in SARS-Cov-2 to bind to the host cell receptor protein (angiotensinconverting enzyme 2 (ACE2)) leading to its entry in cellular system determines its contagious index and global spread. Three available drugs (Riboflavin, Amodiaquin dihydrochloride dihydrate (ADD) and Remidesivir) were investigated to understand the kinetics of S-protein and its entry inside a cellular environment. Optical microscopy and fluorescence-based assays on 293T cells (transfected with ACE2 plasmid) were used as the preamble for assessing the behaviour of S-protein in the presence of these drugs for the first 12 hours post S-protein – ACE2 binding. Preliminary results suggest relatively long retention of S-protein on the cell membrane in the presence of ADD drug. Evident from the %-overlap and colocalization of S-protein with endosome studies, a large fraction of S-protein entering the cell escape endosomal degradation process, suggesting S-protein takes non-endocytic mediated entry in the presence of ADD, whereas in the presence of Riboflavin, S-protein carry out normal endocytic pathway, comparable to control (no drug) group. Therefore, present study indicates ADD potentially affects S-protein’s entry mechanism (endocytic pathway) in addition to its reported target action mechanism. Hence, ADD substantially interfere with S-protein cellular entrance mechanism. However, further detailed studies at molecular scale will clarify our understanding of exact intermediate molecular processes. The present study (based on limited data) reveal ADD could be potential candidate to manage Covid-19 functions through yet unknown molecular mechanism.
Read the full pre-print at: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.01.05.424956v1.full